Friday 20 April
From just war .... To the challenge of just peace.
In a century, the warlike violence of men has furiously seized Humanity, justifying it through theological or ideological pretexts against the backdrop of eschatological millenarianism. The fear of the Other has prevailed through stereotypical visions denying the human being . This day is devoted to the understanding of complex phenomena related to the world wars since 1914, of which the civilians of all the continents are the victims more and more numerous. It is addressed to all to understand and mature a reflection on the construction of a daily peace in a globalized society based on exchange and communication
9h00 : Reception by Lille Catholic University.
9h30 - 10h00 : Welcoming Rector-President P. Giorgini (Lille Catholic University)
10h00 -10h45 – Conférences. Choice between 4 thematics proposed
11h00 - 12h00 : Workshop . (choice between 4 thematics proposed)
12h00 -14h00 : Breakfast – animations, meetings and discussions
1400 - 14h45 : Conférences (choice between 4 thematics proposed)
15h00 - 16h00 : Wokshop (choice between 4 thematics proposed)
16h30 – 17h 30 : Conférence by Andréa Riccardi, San Egidio’Founder.
18h00 - 19h00 : Reception to Notre-Dame de la Treille cathedral. Sings and organ.18h15 : Unveiling by Mgr Ulrich, Lille ‘s archbishop, Nicolas Alquin’s work: "La paix soit avec toi"
Inauguration de l'œuvre " La paix soit avec toi " de Nicolas Alquin (Cathédrale de Lille - Notre Dame de la Treille)
The just war: limits and failures.
When the declaration of war came, the moralists invoked on both sides the classic principle of the "just war" (Thomas d’Aquin , Ramon de Penafort etc ...) based on the need to defend against an unjust aggressor. It appeared that each of the camps could claim its good right ... Other theological theories were invoked coming from the biblical notion of “holy war “. Some then considered a sacrificial or even mystical interpretation of war and its horrors. The june 2014 declaration of Mgr Algermissen, President of Pax Christi, denouncing the absence of real cause and moral justification for the conflict is an important advance in terms of theological reflection and asks a sharpness question : how French and Germans, who proclaimed their common faith during the 22-26 July 1914 Eucharistic Congress in Lourdes, became soldiers ready to kill each other?
Dominique FOYER theologian.
JUST WAR, HOLY WAR, UNJUSTIFIABLE WAR. A CONFLICTS THEOLOGICAL-POLITICAL APPROACH.
The first world conflict presents some analogies with the current situation in the Middle East: how to qualify the war morally? Is it possible to justify it from a theological point of vue? If sometimes make war seems a necessity, is it a reason to say that it is a moral duty, even a holy cause?
Pierre Outteryck: Doct. French Literature, IRHIS-University of Lille.
June 28 - August 3, 1914, a re-reading of Jaures: Was the war inevitable?
A fresh and happy war? Jaurès had risen against this idea commonly spread on the First World War eve. Jaurès considered that this war neither just nor reasonable could be avoided. He thought possible to exclude this terrible threat until the fatal gunshot of the July 31 evening!
J.Heuclin, H. D. U.C Lille.
Offensives of peace, a weapon of war.
During the year 1917, many peace offers was made, including those of Pope Benedict XV. All failed suggesting that it was the failure of diplomacy and that the only solution to the world conflict was the victorious peace achieved by arms. That’s what happened, making historians believe that the concept of peace was used by belligerents as a weapon of war.
Bruno Bethouart: E. P. ULCO
Mgr Julien: from Jeanne D’arc to Marc Sangnier
1920, follower of this «heroine who loves religion and country with equal love", the bishop of Arras, ardent patriot, finds the reconciliation words during the inauguration day of the Lorette monument , and six years later, he launchs at Bierville, at Marc Sangnier, urgent appeals for peace in front of an audience of French and Germans.
Jean-Michel Guieu: McF, Paris I-Sorbonne
To win over the peace. 1914-1919
August 4, 1914, the daily newspaper “Le Petit Parisien” headline «We take up arms to impose a lasting peace throughout Europe." This hope, one of the main sources of the struggle acceptance, would it be absolutely fallacious? If the 1919 Versailles peace remains in the collective memory as a "failed" or "illusory" peace, recent historiography tends to regard it as the most stable arrangement that could come out of the difficult negotiations between the winners.
Xavier Boniface. Professor, University of Picardie J.Verne
From just war to just peace
The just war is a theological concept - then political – defined mainly from the middle Ages. In 1914, the belligerents refer to it to justify the conflict that begins, each being convinced that his cause is legitimate and has the support of god. The result is the affirmation of a convergence of faith in God and faith in the fatherland. But Pope Benedict XV position is difficult with faithfull presence in both camps. He recalls that the war is a "horrible butchery" and a "suicide of civilized Europe". Moreover, he tries to define, especially with his note of 1917, what could - and should - be a just peace.
Cathy Leblanc. Theologian UC Lille
The American poet E. e. Cummings engaged with the French Red Cross and the traumas of imprisonment, how to sublimate them, establishing a relationship with WW II and his deportation and I will also talk about the difficulty to establish a reconciliation after war traumas . What is the state of mind of those who have been subjected to extreme suffering in a politically programmed situation? How do these people find landmarks in a peaceful world? Can the world only calm down for them? Forgiveness testifies to how the deportee finds the means, when he survived, to position himself in relation to the destructive power of the Nazi far right. The setting currency is "neither hatred nor forgetfulness". But some like Sam Braun, find in forgiveness a way to find themselves. Others, like Marie-José Chombart-de-Lawe, in charge of Ravensbrück's "nursery", cannot even imagine what this term covers. But when a person cannot forgive an extreme evil the unforgivable then impedes the freedom to think and the person is besieged by the horror of memory that can slip into the simplest things: the thin metal rod used to support a rose on a pretty table can therefore refer to the barbed universe. Is liberation really possible? How is she trading psychically? Is forgiveness alone enough?
The challenge of just peace.
Contemporary forms of war are out of proportion facing to wrongs and injuries they are supposed to punish : War is defined as an own evil , it is an irrational fact driven by ideologies, imaginaries, ignorances and stereotypes soliciting fantasies and illusions. "It is in the heart of men that wars are born," said Paul VI, " it is there that the Church must act by forming the spirituality of men against ignorance. This dominant theology of just peace step in the very secularized context of the Western world.
Michel Drain: Official, IFRelations internationales
The challenges of just peace in a troubled world
Today we are witnessing to a renewal of power rivalries and to a weaknessing of the law. The United States, despite its pre-eminence, can no longer alone determine the course of international politic. Multiple centers of power, often rivals, appear. Risks of confrontation between nuclear powers are growing, from the borders of Russia to the China Sea. Nuclear and ballistic activities in North Korea illustrate the dangers of proliferation. In the South, many peoples suffer the wars and chaos that result from the collapse of states.
Ambassador of Czech Republic, P. Drulak
The peace and tradition of Czech political thought.
Dominique Durand, President of the International Committee Buchenwald-Dora and Kommandos.
Peace. After 1945, the question of peace arose in new terms dictated by the characteristics of WW II. The nature of the war and the use of nuclear weapon as mass destruction devices to make bend the Japanese dictatorship invites the international community to engage in the promotion of a lasting peace, based on a so-called transition justice (Nuremberg), the creation of international institutions (ONU) supported by diverse ideological currents, federating institutions (Peace Movement, Amnesty International), new democratic forms, and a renewed intellectual thinking (human rights, disarmament). But peace is only one of the fundamentals of a desire for renewal of society, which was partly forged in the concentration camp experience. It will lead by step to the advent of a new world order today called into question. This workshop should allow to revisit this past and evaluate the relevance of its contribution.
General P. de Puybusque.
Does the old adage "si vis pacem para bellum" prepare the war?
"Si vis pacem, para bellum" is still considered today as a wise rule of governance for a state that claims to preserve peace without engaging in aggressive politics. In France, this is the motto of the School of War. But does this maxim retain all its relevance at a time when conflicts seem to have profoundly new forms? Does it not allow easy accommodations to prepare to start the war? One hundred years after the Great War, seventy-three years after the Second World War, can we still claim this motto that all the protagonists of the time believed? In addition, isnt it necessary to know how to dissuade a potential adversary by displaying abilities and a resolution? Finally, to be a man of peace, must one still accept to prepare the war?
Elie Baranets: researcher at Polytechnique / IRSEM.
How to lose a war. A theory of democratic circumvention.
Democracies have a decisive military advantage. This does not prevent them to know recurent difficulties. From the war arise imperatives that provide to the governings the opportunity to increase their powers. But the undemocratic behavior of decision-makers who misuse the public about the reality of their goals eventually turns against them. They condemn themselves to elaborate their strategy in the optics of makeup it, privileging discretion to efficiency. These practices feed the intern contestation until to make the war effort unsustainable politically. While it is common to affirm that democracy is detrimental to the proper conduct of operations, Elie Baranets shows that defeat comes from its denial. How does power manage to bypass democracy? How do political actors react to lies and dissimulation? What are the concrete effects of these stratagems on the course of the war?
After WW I and its disastrous consequences, much academic work focused on identifying the causes of the war, in order to prevent such an event from happening again. we thought to reach it by reducing the institutions imperfections,and increasing transparency and democracy.
But it is only seventy years later that finally one of the most dynamic debates ever known by the discipline of International Relations emerged:The debate of democratic peace. We propose to present the most salient features of this debate, which aims to determine why democracies do not fight each other. We retain the idea that the maintenance of democratic practices in case of dispute offers a very fertile framework of analysis. In addition, it also helps to explain the outcome of the wars of democracies when they occur.
Dr. Dimitrios Anagnostakis, Postdoctoral teaching Liverpool Hope University.
European Union and internal security: the external dimension and the relationship with the United States.
Since the signing of the Maastricht Treaty, internal security (codified as “justice and home affairs” and as the “area of freedom, security and justice”) has emerged as a new policy field for European Union which has as a result acquired extensive competencies in this area. The EU is now considered a major policy actor on issues such as the fight against organised crime and terrorism, migration and asylum, and the management of EU’s external borders. More recently, cybersecurity has been a policy area in which the EU has taken various measures and has established a number of institutional bodies such as the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) and the European Cybercrime Centre located in Europol. The rapid increase of EU competencies in the area of internal security and the 9/11 terrorist attacks have prompted a similarly rapid expansion of the relations between the EU and the United States on internal security matters: in a matter of a few years the EU has concluded international agreements with the US on customs security, the transfer of air travellers’ data, the transfer of financial data, mutual legal assistance and extradition, security research, the sharing of judicial information with Eurojust, and the sharing of criminal intelligence and operational information with Europol. This paper maps transatlantic internal security cooperation, identifies the patterns that characterise the EU-US relationship, and touches upon the broader themes of how the EU and the US negotiate their relations, how global standards on internal security (including counter-terrorism) emerge, and how private actors interact with the EU and the US under a framework of transatlantic security governance.
Olivier Beddelem, President of the European Movement North, Professor at EDHEC Business School
On May 9, 1950, Schuman pronounced his now famous declaration. And he began it in these terms: "World peace can not be saved without creative efforts commensurate with the dangers that threaten it.The contribution that an organized and living Europe can bring to civilization is indispensable for the maintenance of pacific relations. For more than twenty years, France has always been the champion of a united Europe, its essential purpose has always been to serve peace, Europe has not been made, we have had the war. " 78 years later, this statement is more relevant than ever. The construction of Europe has allowed the members of the Union to live the longest period of their history without wars within it, while previous generations have experienced three deadly conflicts in 1870, 1914 and 1939.
Dominique Reniers, Doctor HDR in clinical and pathological psychology.
"If you want peace ...", Psychological and philosophical approaches to just peace.
"Never again! ..." This was the cry launched after the horrors of the First World War ... It will take only 21 years to contradict the expectation of a peace included in this cry. It would, of course, be possible to summon the historical circumstances that favored the outbreak of the Second World War. But reflection can go further! Can war, in itself, be the stake of a lesson logically calling for its non-reproduction, or for a lasting peace .History itself is there to contradict it! The question is then worth asking more radically: can a society, whatever it is, do without war to envisage peace? Freud himself, shortly after 1918, repeated the famous motto "Si vis pacem, para bellum", stressing that conflict, which can take the face of the wildest destruction, is constitutive of all human society. This, in truth, is not without directing the debate on what today tends to omit what history, that of 14-18 and others, keeps repeating to us
Civilians in the war.
While soldiers are the iconic victims of conflict, peoples also suffered atrocities during the two world wars. From 1914 to the present, the number of civilian casualties in wars has steadily increased to far exceed those of combatants. The studies conducted on the concept of total war agree to give civilians a major place because it is the whole economy and peoples who are, by choice or by force, in the service of the military system throwing crowds scattered on the roads of deportation, exodus and endless migrations.
Jean-Claude Guillebaud ; journalist, writer.
Civilians have become the "target".
The concept of total war, based on the extermination of civilians, is issued from a great historical break that goes back paradoxically to the "democratization" of the war in the late eighteenth century. Then came the madness of 14-18, and twenty years later that of deliberate bombing. Today, modern wars kill many more civilians than combatants.
Jean-Paul Visse: Historian, journalist.
Civilians in the war through the Nord Pas-de-Calais press.
WW I, WW II, Algeria War, three conflicts in which France is engaged. Three conflicts in which the written press, despite the constraints imposed by the government or the occupier, remains the only and then the main means of information. Three conflicts that are not just battles or a diplomatic game, but where civilians are caught in turmoil. How and under what conditions does the press report on their daily lives, their suffering, especially in a region that, each time, knows a particular situation?
Eric Vanneufville: Historian.
About the exodus of Belgian civilians to France and Holland from 1914 to 1917.
The elements that will be given will aim at describing and clarifying the solutions adopted and the procedures implemented in various ways, taking into account both the dates of these exoduses,the places of departure and the attitudes and modes of reception of neighboring countries, France and Holland. The description of these movements will suggest the hard complexity of the practical organization of these exoduses, locally or cyclically disordered, demonstrated in particular by individual testimonies of migrants of that time.
Jacqueline Duhem, A. of History, Member of the Historical Society of Villeneuve d'Ascq and the Historical Commission of the french North county
The massacres of civilians in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais in May 1940 : During the west offensive of German troops, millions of Belgian and French civilians tries to flee and will be caught in the fighting between French and British units in full retreat and German units, which, contrary to popular belief, suffer heavy losses. More than 600 civilians, men, women and children, will perish, often in atrocious conditions, victims of the thirst for revenge of SS units but also of the Wehrmacht. The memory of this tragedy of May 1940 was however obscured at the Liberation.
Professor of law history at Lille Catholic Institute, trainer at ENM (National School of Magistracy).
From martyrdom to reconciliation
During WW I, the north of France residents were particularly affected by the retaliatory measures that the Germans subjected them to because of the resistance that they were opposed to them a such level that one can talk about the martyr spirit. Since then, the condition of civilians in the various wars, in France and abroad, has given rise to a multiplication of damaging and irreparable acts, making it difficult then to return to a quiet society. To physical sufferings has been added a crescendo of attacks on human dignity that justice has defined as crimes that can not be forgotten. By this fact reconciliation, therefore, takes time and must be organized in such a way that victims recognized as such can forgive and that commemorations of events lead to a non-forgetfulness of future societies. By this way maybe peace will become sustainable?
Assumpta Mugiraneza: Graduated in social psychology and political science from Paris VIII University, co-founder and director of the IRIBA Center for Multimedia Heritage.
"The repair of civilians after the genocide - combining interdisciplinarity and complementarity"
The reparation of the civilians , responds both to the judicial reparation instituted by society, the process that leads to the recognition of wrong, helps to repair both the individual and the community. There is also the reparation by the psychotherapeutic care which, in the post-genocide, takes on several dimensions (the obligation to recreate meaning where everything seems to be "insane", to restore the link when everything has been broken, to give back the speak to the unspeakable, to recreate a relation to time, to resinscribe a temporality that has undergone extreme compression-decompression, to accept to live still knowing.
- Maruhukiro Déogratias, Isch, President of Rapred-Girubuntu e.V. Assistant at the University of Freiburg, Peace and Reconciliation Research Bureau
From Civil wars to challenge of peace: the Catholic Church facing the vicious circle of the civil war in Burundi
After briefly describing the different cycles of violence and civil war that plunged Burundi into mourning after independence, the speaker will try to show the efforts of the Catholic Church, especially those of the Schoenstatt movement, to reconcile the Burundian people. Finally, he will discuss the current political crisis (since April 2015) which risks undermining these efforts.
Dr Catalina Montoya, Department of History and Politics, Director of the Archbishop Desmond Tutu Centre for War and Peace Studies, Liverpool Hope University.
Rural victims, fake victims and victimized occupants: the public struggle over the legitimacy of the Law of Victims and Land Restitution in Colombia.
Law 1448 of Victims and Land Restitution was ratified in Colombia in June 2011 and its implementation started in January 2012, the same year that the Government started peace talks with the left-wing guerrillas of FARC. The Law aims to redress victims of the armed conflict and is part of an attempt to bring peace by applying a transitional justice framework and fostering rural development. Drawing on a methodology that integrates framing and rhetorical analysis of public communications by political sectors and news media content, this workshop assesses the competing frames at play in the implementation of the Law and their political and media resonance. It proposes firstly, that development talk by the government linked to the Law had greater resonance and was overall more successful than the peace and human rights one. Secondly, that interested economic and political sectors promoted a narrower definition of victims: second occupants accused of stealing or taking over dispossessed land. Such twisted definition gained momentum against the referendum for peace in 2016 and is being used in the emerging electoral campaign, threatening the sustainability of the Law and peace implementation in Colombia, beyond the next presidential elections.
Educate to Peace.
"Peace is not just the absence of war, and it is not limited to ensuring the balance of opposing forces. Peace can not be achieved on earth without safeguarding people's properties, free communication between human beings, respect for the dignity of persons and peoples, the constant practice of fraternity ". Peace is a fruit of justice and an effect of charity. Peace is above all a gift of God. The message of Christ is a message of peace. "Especially in the fact of recognizing in each person an identity able to reveal itself and to reveal the divine part in it.
Bishop, Dr. Michael Gerber: Auxiliary Bishop of Freiburg
A peace mission : Joseph Kentenich, founder of Schoenstatt.
Spirituality and pedagogy of Father Joseph Kentenich becomes reality in the total abandonment of his co-founders. They discover their personal ideal, they develop it on a path often very painful and in inhuman circumstances during the war in Cambrai and during the years of the post-war period by engaging for the reconciliation and for the Christian values. Encouraged by the examples of the young soldier and the young "duchess-nurse", many people also follow their spiritual father in the teaching of the love Alliance that makes Father Kentenich survive in the hell of Dachau and allows him to convince the Christian community h during the long years of the visitation.
Hans and Gertrud Zier - High School Teachers - Gertrud Beilmann, Director of the Schoenstatt Women's Apostolic Union
The mission of Josef Engling and Gertraud von Bullion for peace in the spirit of Father J. Kentenich,
These two characters illustrate in the middle of the war, each in their own way, an elevated ideal of peace through service and love for the Mother of God. Joseph Engling, who came from a modest family of tailors, entered Schönstatt at the age of 14 in the Marian Congregation of Fr. Kentenich, where he affirmed his spiritual ideal, which he pursued assiduously until October 4, 1918, the date of his sacrifice in Thun-St -Martin. For her part, Count von Bullion's daughter transformed her pride and ambition into a very high ideal, that of serving all with love. Committed to the Red Cross in 1915, she testified this ideal , invested of the grace, in the hospitals of Cambrai and Mons with the wounded that she incited to receive the sacraments, tirelessly repeating that love brings to action and to apostolate.
Mr Gerald Pillay: Vice Chancellor and Rector of Liverpool Hope University.
The role of universities ... culture of peace in Europe.
"Universities in the West began with the Church and theology" The moorings were religious, Christian and theological. The old mediaeval sense held at the heart of the humanities is the queen of the sciences : theology. You can not conceive of Europe without that. "Cathedral schools were the forerunners of universities and such terms as" vice-chancellor "and" dean "were borrowed from the mediaeval church. "The very underpinning of modern scholarship is the Christian faith," he claimed. "Universitas, in its best and universal sense, is theological."
Philippe Diest, McF in Contemporary History (FLSH)
From warrior heritage to memorial heritage
Since the Middle Ages, the war phenomenon has left many vestiges, especially in the form of military buildings. However, the magnitude of conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century and the establishment of a lasting interstate peace in Western Europe are at the origin of a new perception of these buildings. Now militarily obsolete, their memory role is gradually affirmed and faces specific issues.
- Vincent Leclerc. Assumptionist, Ethics Specialist, Doctor
Identity, community and reconciliation gospel, Christian resources in the face of tribalism. Analysis of the practices of the Ugandan Catholic theologian Emmanuel Katongole.
His workshops usually progress in three parts : to complain, to learn, to come out of conflict. They aim to replace the conflict by the search for a lasting peace , by integrating the conflict history into another narrative (healing, salvation, Kingdom of God ...). This other narrative is solicited in its capacity to integrate but also to overcome the lived situations and to make the peace desirable.
Katongole's approach is used to obtain a concrete proposal regarding the contribution of Christian theology to a peace and reconciliation ethic accessible to communities of the Great Lakes region which is one of the less-peaceful of the world, but also, paradoxically, one of the most explicitly Christian